Most snappers are classified as euryphagic carnivores (Bortone and Williams 1986). In the Caribbean (Randall 1967), crabs made up 44% of the diet, fish (29%), gastropods (13%), with the remainder consisting of octopods, hermit crabs and shrimp (Randall 1967; Allen 1985). Predators:Primary predators of snappers are sharks and other large predatory fishes including other snappers (Bortone and Williams 1986). Habitats: Lutjanus analis adults are typically found at depths of 40 - 59 m (140 - 194 feet) depths (Rivas 1970) where they often form small schools during daylight hours, but disband at night (Allen 1985). Juveniles are most common in inshore waterways (Springer and McErlean 1962) where the substrate consists of sand, seagrasses, or coral rubble (Bortone and Williams 1986). Adults tend to remain in an area once they have become established (Beaumariage 1969; Bortone and Williams 1986) and are most common in the open waters of shelf areas and around islands. Larger adults inhabit coral reefs and rocky, hard bottom areas.Activity Time: Lutjanus analis is active diurnally and nocturnally (Allen 1985; Bortone and Williams 1986).
- Allen, G. R. 1985. Snappers of the World: An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogueof Lutjanid Species Known to Date. FAO Fisheries Synopsis, no. 125, vol. 6.Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.ISBN/ISSN: 92-5-102321-2.
- Anderson, W. D., Jr. 1967. Field guide to the snappers (Lutjanidae) of the westernAtlantic. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Circ. 252.
- Beaumariage, D.S. 1969. Returns from the 1965 Schlitz tagging program includinga cumulative analysis of previous results. Fla. Dep. Nat. Resour. Tech. Ser. No.59:1-38.
- Bortone, S.A., and J.L. Williams. 1986. Species profiles: life histories andenvironmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida)--gray, lane, mutton, and yellowtail snappers. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Biol. Rep.82(11.52). U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, TR EL-82-4.
- Erdman, D.S. 1976. Spawning patterns of fishes from the northeastern Caribbean. Agric. Fish. Contrib. Dep. Agric. (Puerto Rico) 8(2):1-36.
- IGFA, 2001 Database of IGFA angling records until 2001. IGFA, FortLauderdale, USA.Manooch, C.S., 1987 Age and growth of snappers and groupers. p. 329-373. In J.J. Polovina and S. Ralston (eds.) Tropical snappers and groupers: biology andfisheries management. Ocean Resour. Mar. Policy Ser. Westview Press, Inc.,Boulder and London.
- Mason, D.L. and C.S. Manooch, III, 1985 Age and growth of mutton snapperalong the east coast of Florida. Fish. Res. 3:93-104.
- Randall, J.E., 1968 Caribbean reef fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Inc. Ltd., HongKong. 318 p.Rivas, L.R. 1970. Snappers of the Western Atlantic. Commer. Fish. Rev. 32(1):41-44.
- Rojas, L.E. 1960. Estudios estadisticos y biologicos sobre pargo criollo, Lutjanusanalis. Cent. Invest. Pesq. Cuba. Nota 2:1-16.
- Smith, C.L., 1997. National Audubon Society field guide to tropical marine fishesof the Caribbean, the Gulf of Mexico, Florida, the Bahamas, and Bermuda.Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York. 720 p.
- Springer, V.G., and A.J. McErlean.1962. Seasonality of fishes on a south Florida shore. Bull. Mar. Sci. 12(l): 39-60.
- Thompson, M., and J.L. Munro. 1974. The biology, ecology, exploitation andmanagement of Caribbean reef fishes; scientific report of the O.D.S./U.W.I.fisheries. Ecology Research Project 1969-1973. Part V. The biology, ecologyand bionomics of Caribbean reef fishes: V.D. Lutjanidae (snappers). Zool. Dep.Univ. West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica. Res. Rep. 3:1-69.
- Thompson, R. and J.L. Munro. 1983. The biology, ecology and bionomics ofCaribbean reef fishes: Lutjanidae (snappers). p. 94-109. In: J.L. Munro (ed.)Caribbean coral reef fishery resources. ICLARM Stud. Rev 7.
- Wicklund, R. 1969. Observations on spawning of lane snapper. Underwater Nat.6(2):40.
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