Reproduction is sexual and oviparous. The breeding season generally persists from late spring through mid-summer. In the northern hemisphere thi eseason typically occurs from late March and to early July and in the southern hemisphere from September through December.Clutch sizes average 4-6 eggs and females may produce up 3 clutches over the course of a breeding season. The species is polygynous, with males breeding with multiple females (Kahane 1988, Craig and Feare 1999, Kern 2001).
- Adeney J.M. 2001. Introduced Species Summary Project: European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Available online.
- Chapman F.M. 1966. Handbook Of Birds Of Eastern North America. Dover Publications, Inc. New York. 581 p.
- Chow, J. 2000. Sturnus vulgarisi, Animal Diversity Web. Available online.
- Craig, A. and C. Feare. 1999. The Starling. Princeton University Press, New Jersey. 285 p. Press.
- Kahane, D. 1988. The Invasion of California by the European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Unpublished Masters' Thesis, University of California. 133 p. Press.
- Kern, William J. 2004. European Starling. (UF/IFAS) SSWEC-118. 7 p.
- Weber, W. J., 1979. Health hazards from pigeons, starlings and English sparrows: Diseases and parasites associated with pigeons, domestic animals, includes suggestions for bird control. Thomson Publications, New York. 138 p.
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