S. vulgaris is one of the world's most abundant birds (Kahane 1988; Craig and Feare 1999).The 1994 S. vulgaris population was estimated at 140 million birds and the expanding population is likely now to be substantially larger. Migrating flocks may consist of up to 3,000 individuals (Chow, Kern 2001).In the late spring through late summer, starlings are commonly encountered in Florida as dispersed pairs. In the fall and winter, they aggregate as large migrating flocks, although a year-round Florida population exists as well (Chow 200, Kern 2001).
- Adeney J.M. 2001. Introduced Species Summary Project: European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Available online.
- Chapman F.M. 1966. Handbook Of Birds Of Eastern North America. Dover Publications, Inc. New York. 581 p.
- Chow, J. 2000. Sturnus vulgarisi, Animal Diversity Web. Available online.
- Craig, A. and C. Feare. 1999. The Starling. Princeton University Press, New Jersey. 285 p. Press.
- Kahane, D. 1988. The Invasion of California by the European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Unpublished Masters' Thesis, University of California. 133 p. Press.
- Kern, William J. 2004. European Starling. (UF/IFAS) SSWEC-118. 7 p.
- Weber, W. J., 1979. Health hazards from pigeons, starlings and English sparrows: Diseases and parasites associated with pigeons, domestic animals, includes suggestions for bird control. Thomson Publications, New York. 138 p.
No one has provided updates yet.