Nest incubation lasts from 11-15 days. Nesting duties are shared between males and females, but females possess a more prominent incubation patch (a defeathered abdominal area with thickened skin and a rich blood vessel bed) and incubate the eggs for the majority of time.Hatchlings are helpless at birth and feeding and nestkeeping chores are shared by both parents. Male parental care is minimal for clutches they may sire late in the season. Young are fed only soft animal fird initially, and over time the diet expands to include a vider variety of animal and plant material. Young remain in the nest for 21-23 days and may rely on parents to feed them for a few days beyond this. Young birds leave the nest to form flocks with other young birds (Kahane 1988, Craig and Feare 1999, Chow 2000, CWBO 2004).
- Adeney J.M. 2001. Introduced Species Summary Project: European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Available online.
- Chapman F.M. 1966. Handbook Of Birds Of Eastern North America. Dover Publications, Inc. New York. 581 p.
- Chow, J. 2000. Sturnus vulgarisi, Animal Diversity Web. Available online.
- Craig, A. and C. Feare. 1999. The Starling. Princeton University Press, New Jersey. 285 p. Press.
- Kahane, D. 1988. The Invasion of California by the European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Unpublished Masters' Thesis, University of California. 133 p. Press.
- Kern, William J. 2004. European Starling. (UF/IFAS) SSWEC-118. 7 p.
- Weber, W. J., 1979. Health hazards from pigeons, starlings and English sparrows: Diseases and parasites associated with pigeons, domestic animals, includes suggestions for bird control. Thomson Publications, New York. 138 p.
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