Introduced to North America in 1890, S. vulgaris now occur throughout most of the continent. The greatest densities in the U.S. occur in the Midwest and Mid-Atlantic states, but the species can also be found throughout Florida. S. vulgaris is established throughout the state, including the 6 counties of the India River Lagoon watershed.
- Adeney J.M. 2001. Introduced Species Summary Project: European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Available online.
- Chapman F.M. 1966. Handbook Of Birds Of Eastern North America. Dover Publications, Inc. New York. 581 p.
- Chow, J. 2000. Sturnus vulgarisi, Animal Diversity Web. Available online.
- Craig, A. and C. Feare. 1999. The Starling. Princeton University Press, New Jersey. 285 p. Press.
- Kahane, D. 1988. The Invasion of California by the European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Unpublished Masters' Thesis, University of California. 133 p. Press.
- Kern, William J. 2004. European Starling. (UF/IFAS) SSWEC-118. 7 p.
- Weber, W. J., 1979. Health hazards from pigeons, starlings and English sparrows: Diseases and parasites associated with pigeons, domestic animals, includes suggestions for bird control. Thomson Publications, New York. 138 p.
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