Females may carry 15 - 20 embryos (Bigelow and Schroeder 1953). Yolk sac embryos resemble adults relative to position of the fins and lack of a defined lower caudal lobe. During development, the rostrum is soft and flexible, with rostral teeth remaining entirely enclosed in a sheath of tissue until shortly after birth (NMFS 2000). In Florida, young are born late winter and spring and measure approximately 60 - 80 cm at birth (Simpfendorfer 2005). The sheath of tissue covering the rostrum disappears shortly after birth so young can feed and defend themselves.No records exist for gestation period for smalltooth sawfishes, however, in largetooth sawfish, gestation lasts approximately 5 months, with females producing litters approximately every other year (MNFS 2000).
- Adams, W.F. and C. Wilson. 1995. The status of the smalltooth sawfish, Pristis pectinata Latham 1794 (Pristiformes: Pristidae), in the United States. Chondros 6(4):1-5.
- Bean, T.H. 1892. Observations upon fishes and fish culture. Bull. U.S. Fish. Comm. 10:49 - 61.
- Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder. 1953. Sawfishes, guitarfishes, skates and rays. Pp. 1 - 514 in: Tee-Van, J., C.M. Breder, A.E. Parr, W.C. Schroeder, and L.P. Schultz (eds.). Fishes of the Western North Atlantic, Part Two. Mem. Sear Found. Mar. Res. I.
- Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder. 1948. New genera and species of batoid fishes. J. Mar. Res. 543 - 566.
- Breder, C.M. 1952. On the utility of the saw of the sawfish. Copeia 1952 (2):90 - 91.
- Evermann, B.W. and B.A. Bean. 1892. The fishes of Texas and the Rio Grande Basin considered chiefly with reference to their geographical distribution.Bull. U.S. Fish. Comm. 12:57-126.
- Gilmore, R.G. 1995. Environmental and biogeographic factors influencing ichtyofaunal diversity: Indian River Lagoon. Bull. Mar. Sci. 57(1):153-170.
- Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens. 1994. Sharks and Rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 pp.
- National Marine Fisheries Service. 2000. Status review of the smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata).
- Schmid, T.H., L.M. Ehrhardt, and F.F. Snelson. 1988. Notes on the occurrence of rays (Elasmobranchii, batoidea) in the Indian River Lagoon system, Florida. Fl. Sci. 51(2):121-128.
- Simpfendorfer, C.A. 2005. Threatened fishes of the World: Pristis pectinata Latham, 1794 (Pristidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes (2005)73:20.
- Simpfendorfer, C.A. 2000. Predicting population recovery rates for endangered Western Atlantic sawfishes using demographic analysis. EnvironmentalBiology of Fishes. 58:371-377.
- Snelson, F.F. and S.E. Williams. 1981. Notes on the occurrence, distribution, and biology of elasmobranch fishes in the Indian River Lagoon system,Florida. Estuaries 4(2):110 - 120.
- Stehmann, M. 1981. Pristidae. In: W. Fischer, G. Bianchi, and W.B. Scott (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Central Atlantic Fishing Areas 34, 47 (in part). Vol. 5.
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