An explosive summer P. punctata bloom, followed by a winter/spring decline or disappearance has occurred in Brazil every year since a population became established around 2001. The reasons for these fluctuations are unknown (Haddad and Nogueira 2006). A similar exponential population explosion occurred in 2000 in the Gulf of Mexico, although subsequent seasonal blooms have not been as large.
- Bolton T.F. and W.M. Graham. 2004. Morphological variation among populations of an invasive jellyfish. Marine Ecology Progress Series 278:125-139.
- Carlton J.T. and J.B. Geller. 1993. Ecological roulette: the global transport of nonindigenous marine organisms. Science 261:78-82.
- Cutress C.E. 1973. Phyllorhiza punctata in the Tropical Atlantic. Associations of Island Marine Laboratories of the Caribbean, Cumana 9:14.
- Fuller P. 2005. Phyllorhiza punctata. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL. Available online.Garcia J.R. and B. Durbin. 1993. Zooplanktivorous predation by large scyphomedusae Phyllorhiza punctata (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) in Laguna Joyuda. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 173:71-93.
- Graham W.M. 1998. First report of Carybdea alata var. grandis (Reynaud 1830) (Cnidaria: Cubozoa) from the Gulf of Mexico. Gulf of Mexico Science 1998:28-30.
- Graham W.M., Perry H.M., and D.L. Felder. 2001. Ecological and Economic implications of the tropical jellyfish, Phylloriza punctata, in the Northern Gulf of Mexico during the summer of 2000. In International Conference on Marine Bioinvasions, New Orleans, Louisiana. Louisiana Sea Grant. 59.
- Graham W.M., Martin D.L., Felder D.L., Asper V.L., and H.M. Perry. 2003. Ecological and economic implications of a tropical jellyfish invader in the Gulf of Mexico. Biological Invasions 5:53-69.
- Graham W.M. and T.F. Bolton. 2004. Molecular and morphological comparisons of native and non-native populations of a jellyfish invader. American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Summer Meeting, Abstract.
- Haddad M.A. and M. Nogueira, Jr. 2006. Reappearance and seasonality of Phyllorhiza punctata von Lendenfeld (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa, Rhizostomeae) medusae in southern Brazil. Rev. Bras. Zool. 23.
- Heeger T., Piatkowski U., and H. Moeller. 1992. Predation on jellyfish by the cephalopod Argonauta argo. Marine Ecology Progress Series 88:293-296.
- Johnson D.R., Perry H.M., and W.M. Graham. 2004. Using nowcast model currents to explore transport of non-indigenous jellyfish into the Gulf of Mexico. Marine Ecology Progress Series 305:139-146.
- Larson R.J. and A.C. Arneson. 1990. Two medusae new to the coast of California: Carybdea marsupialis (Linnaeus, 1758), a cubomedusa and Phyllorhiza punctata von Ledenfeld, 1884, a rhizostome scyphomedusa. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 89:130-136.
- Moreira M.G.B.S. 1961. Sobre Mastigias scintillae sp. nov. (Scyphomedusae, Rhizostomeae) das costas do Brasil. Boletim do Instituto Oceanografico da Universidade de Sao Paulo 11:5-30.
- Omori M. and M. Kitamura. 2004. Taxonomic review of three Japanese species of edible jellyfish (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae), Plankton Biol. Ecol. 51:36-51.
- Perry H. and K. Larsen. 2004. Picture Guide to Shelf Invertebrates of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. NOAA/NMFS online publication.Ray G.L. 2005. Invasive Marine and Estuarine Animals of the Gulf of Mexico. Aquatic Nuisance Species research Program. Document ERDC/TN ANSRP-05-4.
- Rippingale R.J. and S.J. Kelly. 1995. Reproduction and survival of Phyllorhiza punctata (Cnidaria: Rhizostomeae) in a seasonally fluctuating salinity regime in western Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 46:1145-1151.
- Rupert E.E., Fox R.S., and R.D. Barnes. 2004. Invertebrate Zoology. Seventh Edition.Silveira F.L. and P.F.S. Cornelius. 2000. New observations on medusae (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa, Rhizostomae) from the northeast and south Brazil, Acta Biologica Leopoldensia 22:9-18.
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