White mangroves are semiviviparous, with germination of seedlings starting while propagules are still attached to the parent plant. The species is androdioecious, with both hermaphroditic and male plants in a population (Tomlinson 1980, Landry & Rathcke 2007). Flowering occurs from May to December in Florida, peaking in June and July (Tomlinson 1980). Male flowers are typically open for one day, and hermaphroditic flowers remain viable for two days (Landry & Rathcke 2007). Both flower types produce nectar and are pollinated by a wide variety of insects. However, hermaphroditic flowers have the ability to self-pollinate (Rathcke et al. 2001, Landry 2005). Fruits, or propagules, mature within a few months. Germination continues to completion after the propagule drops from the parent tree and is dispersed in the water.Dispersal: Propagules of the white mangrove are approximately 2 cm in length, flattened and lens-shaped. Original coloration is pea-green, turning brown within days after ripening and falling from the tree. Dispersal is facilitated by the outer tissue layer, or pericarp, which acts as a float for the propagule. To fully germinate, propagules must remain in the water for a period of about eight days, and have a lifespan of approximately 35 days. Roots often begin to develop on floating propagules after five days (Rabinowitz 1978).
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