Laguncularia racemosa occurs in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world. Globally, the species ranges from Mexico, the West Indies to Brazil, through Central America to Peru, South America to Ecuador, and West Africa from Senegal to Angola (Exell 1958). In Florida, white mangroves share similar geographical limits with the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle, having been reported as far north as Cedar Key on the west coast (Rehm 1976), and as far north as Ponce de Leon Inlet on the east coast (Teas 1977). Large populations can be found south of Cape Canaveral on Florida's east coast and around Tarpon Springs on the west coast (Odum & McIvor 1990). White mangroves occur throughout the Indian River Lagoon well above the high tide line, generally upland of other mangroves and associated species. However, they can be found intermingled with the black mangrove, Avicennia germinans. Their distribution is often patchy and predominantly occurs in the higher marsh areas (Ball 1980) along the lagoon, including spoil islands, tidal creeks and mosquito impoundments.
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- Landry, CL & BJ Rathcke. 2007. Do inbreeding depression and relative male fitness explain the maintenance of androdioecy in white mangrove, Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae)? New Phytologist 176: 891-901.
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