Laguncularia racemosa occurs in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world. Globally, the species ranges from Mexico, the West Indies to Brazil, through Central America to Peru, South America to Ecuador, and West Africa from Senegal to Angola (Exell 1958). In Florida, white mangroves share similar geographical limits with the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle, having been reported as far north as Cedar Key on the west coast (Rehm 1976), and as far north as Ponce de Leon Inlet on the east coast (Teas 1977). Large populations can be found south of Cape Canaveral on Florida's east coast and around Tarpon Springs on the west coast (Odum & McIvor 1990). White mangroves occur throughout the Indian River Lagoon well above the high tide line, generally upland of other mangroves and associated species. However, they can be found intermingled with the black mangrove, Avicennia germinans. Their distribution is often patchy and predominantly occurs in the higher marsh areas (Ball 1980) along the lagoon, including spoil islands, tidal creeks and mosquito impoundments.
- Ball, MC. 1980. Patterns of secondary succession in a mangrove forest of southern Florida. Oecologia 44: 226-235.
- Exell, AW. 1958. Combretaceae. In: RE Woodson, Jr. & RW Schery, eds. The flora of Panamá. Ann. Miss. Bot. Gdn. 45: 143-164.
- Heald, EJ. 1969. The production of organic detritus in a south Florida estuary. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Miami. Coral Gables, Florida, USA.
- Hogarth, PJ. 2007. The biology of mangroves and seagrasses. 2nd edition. Oxford University Press. New York, USA: 273 pp.
- Landry, CL. 2005. Androdioecy in white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) maintenance of a rare breeding system through plant-pollinator interactions. Ph.D. Thesis. Ann Arbor, MI, USA: University of Michigan.
- Landry, CL & BJ Rathcke. 2007. Do inbreeding depression and relative male fitness explain the maintenance of androdioecy in white mangrove, Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae)? New Phytologist 176: 891-901.
- McMillan, C. 1975. Interaction of soil texture with salinity tolerances of black mangrove (Avicennia) and white mangrove (Laguncularia) from North America. In: Walsh, G, Snedaker, S & H Teas, eds. Proceedings of the international symposium on biology and management of mangroves. Honolulu, HI: East-West Center, 561-566.
- Odum, WE & CC McIvor. 1990. Mangroves. In: Myers, RL & JJ Ewel, eds. Ecosystems of Florida. UCF Press. Orlando, FL, USA: 517-548.
- Odum, WE, McIvor, CC & TJ Smith1982. The ecology of the mangroves of south Florida: a community profile. US Fish Wildl. Serv. Off. Biol. Serv. Tech. Rep. FWS/OBS 81-24.
- Pool, DJ, Lugo, AE & SC Snedaker. 1975. Litter production in mangrove forests of southern Florida and Puerto Rico. Proc. Int. Symp. Biol. Manage. Mangroves. Univ. of Florida. Gainesville, Florida, USA. 213-237.
- Rabinowitz, D. 1978. Dispersal properties of mangrove propagules. Biotropica 10: 47-57.
- Rathcke, BJ, Landry, CL & LB Kass. 2001. White mangrove: are males necessary? In: Clark-Simpson, C & G Smith, eds. Proceedings of the eighth symposium on the natural history of the Bahamas. San Salvador Island, Bahamas: Gerace Research Center, 89-96.
- Rehm, AE. 1976. The effects of the wood-boring isopod, Sphaeroma terebrans, on the mangrove communities of Florida. Environ. Conserv. 3: 47-57.
- Sobrado, MA & SML Ewe. 2006. Ecophysiological characteristics of Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa coexisting in a scrub mangrove forest at the Indian River Lagoon, Florida. Trees 20: 679-687.
- Teas, H. 1977. Ecology and restoration of mangrove shorelines in Florida. Environ. Conserv. 4: 51-57.
- Tomlinson, PB. 1980. The biology of trees native to tropical Florida, 2nd edition. Petersham, MA, USA: Published privately. Printed by the Harvard University Printing Office.
- Twilley, RR, Lugo, AE & C Patterson-Zucca. 1986. Litter production and turnover in basin mangrove forests in southwest Florida. Ecology 67: 670-683.
- Waisel, Y. 1972. Biology of Halophytes. Academic Press. New York, USA: 395 pp.
No one has provided updates yet.