As previously noted, Gambusia affinis and Gambusia holbrooki are sufficiently similar in appearance and behavior to cause considerable taxonomic difficulties, and these may or may not be distinct species. In south Florida, Gambusia affinis co-occurs with the congeneric mangrove gambusia, G. rhizophorae. The latter species is not known from as far north as the IRL however (Ray et al. 1986).The characteristic net-like scale pattern and the poster origin of the dorsal fin relative to the anal fin are typically sufficient to distinguish Gambusia from the co-occurring poeciliid, the sailfin molly, Poecilia latipinna (Hoese and Moore 1977).Poeciliid fishes can generally be differentiated from the potentially similar looking cyprinodontids (the killifishes) by the presence of either a gravid spot (mature females) or an intromittent organ (occurring on mature males) on the former.
- Baber MJ and K. Babbitt. 2004. Influence of habitat complexity on predator-prey interactions between the fish (Gambusia holbrooki) and Tadpoles of Hyla squirella and Gastrophryne carolinensis. Copeia 2004:173-177.
- Britton RH and ME. 1982. Size specific predation by herons and its effect on the sex-ratio of natural populations of the mosquito fish Gambusia affinis Baird and Girard. Oecologia 53:146-151.
- Casterlin ME and WW Reynolds. 1977. Aspects of habitat selection in the mosquitofish Gambusia affinis . Hydrobiologia 55:125-127.
- Cech JJ Jr., Massingill MJ, Vondracek B and AL. Linden. 1985. Respiratory metabolism of mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis : effects of temperature, dissolved oxygen, and sex difference. Environmental Biology of Fishes 13:297-307.
- Collier A. 1936. The mechanism of internal fertilization in Gambusia. Copeia 1936:45-53.
- FishBase. 2004. Species profile: Gambusia affinis Mosquito fish. Available online.
- Greater Los Angeles County Vector Control District (GLAVCD). Undated. Mosquitofish fact sheet. Available online.
- Hoese HD and RH Moore. 1977. Fishes of the Gulf of Mexico. Texas, Louisiana, and Adjacent Waters. Texas A&M University Press, College Station TX. 327 p.
- Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG). 2006. Ecology of Gambusia affinis . Global Invasive Species database. Available online.
- Krumholz LA. 1948. Reproduction in the western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis affinis (Baird & Girard), and Its use in mosquito control. Ecological Monographs 18:1-43.
- McDowall RM. 1990. New Zealand Freshwater Fishes, A Natural History and Guide. Heinemann Reed. 238 p.
- McDowall, R. M. 2000. The Reed Field Guide to New Zealand Freshwater Fishes. Reed Publishing. 224 p.
- Medlen AB. 1951. Preliminary observations on the effects of temperature and light upon Gambusia affinis . Copeia 1951:148-152.
- Minckley WL., Meffe GK, and DL Soltz. 1991. Conservation and management of short-lived fishes: the cyprinodontoids. Pages 247-82 in: Minckley WL and JE Deacon (eds.). Battle Against Extinction: Native Fish Management in the American West. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.
- Moravec F, Huffman DJ, and DJ Swim. 1995. The first record of fish as paratenic hosts of Falcaustra spp. (Nematoda: Kathlaniidae). Journal of Parasitology 81:809-812.
- Rajasekharan PT and BN Chowdaiah. 1972. Selective Feeding Behaviour of Gambusia affinis . Oecologia 11:79-81.
- Robins CR, Ray GC, and J Douglas. 1986. A Field Guide to Atlantic Coast Fishes. The Peterson Field Guide Series. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. 354 p.
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