Females typically brood around 60 young, but large individuals may carry 300 or more (McDowall 2000).The gestation period has been experimentally determined to average around 24 days, a timeframe that is in close agreement with field observations of pond-raised animals (Krumholz 1948). Most fry in the experimental investigation had absorbed the maternal yolk before being liberated, but some broods contained animals that had not completely absorbed the yolk sacs.
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- Collier A. 1936. The mechanism of internal fertilization in Gambusia. Copeia 1936:45-53.
- FishBase. 2004. Species profile: Gambusia affinis Mosquito fish. Available online.
- Greater Los Angeles County Vector Control District (GLAVCD). Undated. Mosquitofish fact sheet. Available online.
- Hoese HD and RH Moore. 1977. Fishes of the Gulf of Mexico. Texas, Louisiana, and Adjacent Waters. Texas A&M University Press, College Station TX. 327 p.
- Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG). 2006. Ecology of Gambusia affinis . Global Invasive Species database. Available online.
- Krumholz LA. 1948. Reproduction in the western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis affinis (Baird & Girard), and Its use in mosquito control. Ecological Monographs 18:1-43.
- McDowall RM. 1990. New Zealand Freshwater Fishes, A Natural History and Guide. Heinemann Reed. 238 p.
- McDowall, R. M. 2000. The Reed Field Guide to New Zealand Freshwater Fishes. Reed Publishing. 224 p.
- Medlen AB. 1951. Preliminary observations on the effects of temperature and light upon Gambusia affinis . Copeia 1951:148-152.
- Minckley WL., Meffe GK, and DL Soltz. 1991. Conservation and management of short-lived fishes: the cyprinodontoids. Pages 247-82 in: Minckley WL and JE Deacon (eds.). Battle Against Extinction: Native Fish Management in the American West. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.
- Moravec F, Huffman DJ, and DJ Swim. 1995. The first record of fish as paratenic hosts of Falcaustra spp. (Nematoda: Kathlaniidae). Journal of Parasitology 81:809-812.
- Rajasekharan PT and BN Chowdaiah. 1972. Selective Feeding Behaviour of Gambusia affinis . Oecologia 11:79-81.
- Robins CR, Ray GC, and J Douglas. 1986. A Field Guide to Atlantic Coast Fishes. The Peterson Field Guide Series. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. 354 p.
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