Populations were estimated in the 1990s to number only 350 to 400 pairs throughout the state of Florida. The species is considered stable, although no further large-scale census attempts have been made in recent years (FWCC 2003) (see 'Threats and Conservation' below).
- Farrand Jr., J (Ed.). 1983. The Audubon Society Master Guide to Birding Volume 1: Loons to Sandpipers. Alfred A. Knopf. New York. USA. 447 pp.
- Kale II, HW & DS Maehr. 1990. Florida's Birds. Pineapple Press. Sarasota, FL. USA. 288 pp.
- Terres, JK. 1980. The Audubon Society Encyclopedia of North American Birds. Alfred A. Knopf. New York. USA. 1109 pp.
- FNAI. 2001. Field Guide to the Rare Animals of Florida. Florida Natural Areas Inventory.
- FWCC. 2003. Florida's Breeding Bird Atlas: A Collaborative Study of Florida's Birdlife. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. http://www.myfwc.com/bba/ (Date accessed 07/01/2010).
- FWCC. 2009. Florida's endangered species, threatened species, and species of special concern. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. Online at http://myfwc.com/WILDLIFEHABITATS/imperiledSpp_index.htm (Date accessed 08/07/2010).
- Powell, GVN, Bjork, RD, Ogden, JC, Paul, RT, Powell, AH & WB Robertson, Jr. 1989. Population trends in some Florida Bay wading birds. Wilson Bull. 101: 436-457.
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