Crassostrea virginica naturally occurs in the Gulf of the St. Lawrence, Canada, along the Atlantic coast of the United States to the Gulf of Mexico to the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico and to the West Indies and the coast of Brazil (Buroker 1983). It is also found in the estuaries of the main Hawaiian Islands where it was introduced in 1866. The eastern oyster forms extensive reefs both intertidally and subtidally on the eastern coast of Florida including the estuaries of the Indian River Lagoon (Grizzle et al. 2002, Boudreaux et al. 2006).
- Berquist DC, Hale JA, Baker P, and SM Baker. 1006. Estuaries and Coasts 29:353-360.Bishop Museum and University of Hawaii Guidebook of Introduced Marine Species of Hawaii. Available online.
- Boudreax ML, Stiner JL, and LJ Walters. 2006. Biodiversity of sessile and motile macrofauna on intertidal oyster reefs in Mosquito Lagoon, Florida. Journal of Shellfish Research 25:1079-1089.
- Brusca RC and GJ Brusca. 1990. Invertebrates. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, MA pp.736-737.
- Buroker NE. 1983. Population genetics of the American oyster Crassostrea virginica along the Atlantic coast and Gulf of Mexico. Marine Biology 75:99-112.
- Dame RF. 1972. The ecological energies of growth, respiration, and assimilation in the intertidal American oyster Crassostrea virginica. Marine Biology 17:243-250.
- Grizzle RE, Adams JR, and LJ Walters. 2002. Historical changes in intertidal oyster (Crassostrea virginica) reefs in a Florida lagoon potentially related to boating activities. Journal of Shellfish Research 21:749-756.
- Kay EA. 1979. Hawaiian Marine Shells. Reef and Shore Fauna of Hawaii, Section 4: Mollusca. BP Bishop Museum Special Publication 64(4), 653 pp.
- Kruczynski W.L. 1973. Distribution and abundance of Pinnotheres maculates Say in Bogue Sound, North Carolina. Biological Bulletin 145:482-491.
- Meyer DL and EC Townsend. 2000. Faunal utilization of created intertidal eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) reefs in the southeastern United States. 23:34-45.
- Motes ML, DePaola A, Cook DW, Veazey JE, Hunsucker JC, Garthright WE, Blodgett RJ, and SJ.Chirtel. 1998. Influence of water temperature and salinity on Vibrio vulnificus in Northern Gulf and Atlantic coast oysters (Crassostrea virginica). Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64:1459-1465.
- Newell RIE and SJ Jordan. 1983. Preferential ingestion of organic material by the American oyster Crassostrea virginica. Marine Ecology Progress Series 13:47-53.
- Riisg?rd HU. 1988. Efficiency of particle retention and filtration rate in 6 species of Northeast American bivalves. Marine Ecology Progress Series 45:217-223.
- Tamplin ML and GM Capers. 1992. Persistence of Vibrio vulnificus in tissues of Crassostrea virginica of gulf coast oysters, Crassostrea virginica, exposed to seawater disinfected with UV light. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 58:1506-1510.
- Wallace RK. 2001. Cultivating the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica. Southern Regional Aquaculture Center Publication Number 432. pp. 4.
- Wilson C, Scotto L, Scarpa J, Volety A, Laramore S, and D Haunert. 2005. Survey of water quality, oyster reproduction and oyster health status in the St. Lucie Estuary. Journal of Shellfish Research 24:157-165.
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