The toxins produced by species are yet to be described/ identified but it has been associated with fish/ invertebrate kills (Cardwell et al. 1979).
- Tomas C ed. (1997). Identifying marine diatoms and dinoflagellates. pp 598. Academic Press Ltd. London
- Cardwell, R.D., Olsen, S., Carr, M.I. & Sanborn, E.W. (1979). Causes of oyster mortality in South Puget Sound. NOAA Tech. Mem. ERL MESA-39.
- Bockstahler, K.R. & Coats, D.W. (1993). Spatial and temporal aspects of mixotrophy in Chesapeake Bay dinoflagellates. J. Euk. Microbiol. 40: 49-60.
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