Native to central and eastern South America, the Hyacinth Macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus), or Hyacinthine Macaw, is the largest macaw and the largest flying parrot species in the world, though the flightless Kakapo of New Zealand can outweigh it at up to 3.5 kg. In terms of length it is larger than any other species of parrot. While generally easily recognized, it can be confused with the far rarer and smaller Lear's Macaw. Their popularity as pets has taken a heavy toll on their population in the wild.
The Hyacinth Macaw is 100 cm (3.3 ft) long from the tip of its tail to the top of its head and 1.200–1.700 kg (2.65–3.75 lb) in weight. Each wing is 388–425 mm (15.3–16.7 in) long. Its feathers are entirely blue, lighter above and darker on its wings. It has a large black curved beak. It has bright-yellow bare skin at the base of its lower beak and also yellow bare skin circling its eyes. Male and female have identical external appearances.
Food and feeding
They have a very strong beak for eating their natural foods, which include the kernel of hard nuts and seeds. Their strong beaks are even able to crack coconuts, the large brazil nut pods and macadamia nuts. In addition, they eat fruits and other vegetable matter. Pine nuts are also one of the most popular foods. In the Pantanal, Hyacinth Macaws feed almost exclusively on the nuts of Acrocomia aculeata and Attalea phalerata palm trees.
These birds nest in existing holes in trees. The clutch size is one or two eggs, although usually only one fledgling survives as the second egg hatches several days after the first, and the smaller fledgling cannot compete with the first born for food. Juveniles stay with their parents until they are three months old. They are mature and begin breeding at seven years of age. Eggs are regularly predated by corvids, possums, coatis and (most prolifically) toucans. Adults have no known natural predators.
Distribution and habitat
The Hyacinth Macaw survives today in three main populations in South America: In the Pantanal region of Brazil, and adjacent eastern Bolivia and northeastern Paraguay, in the Cerrado region of the eastern interior of Brazil (Maranhão, Piauí, Bahia, Tocantins, Goiás, Mato Grosso and Minas Gerais), and in the relatively open areas associated with the Tocantins River, Xingu River, Tapajós River, and the Marajó island in the eastern Amazon Basin of Brazil. It is possible that smaller, fragmented populations occur in other areas. It prefers palm swamps, woodlands, and other semi-open wooded habitats. It usually avoids dense humid forest, and in regions dominated by such habitats, it is generally restricted to the edge or relatively open sections (e.g. along major rivers).
The Hyacinth Macaw is an endangered species due to overcollection for the cage bird trade and habitat loss. Annual grass fires set by farmers can destroy nest trees, and regions previously inhabited by this macaw are now unsuitable due to cattle-ranching, hydroelectric power schemes, agriculture and plantations. Locally, it has been hunted for food, and the Kayapo Indians of Gorotire in south-central Brazil use its feathers to make headdresses and other baubles. While overall greatly reduced in numbers, it remains locally common in the Brazilian Pantanal, where a specific program, the Hyacinth Macaw Project, among others involving artificial nests and awareness campaigns, has been initiated by several ecolodges, and many ranch-owners now protect the macaws on their land.
- ^ a b c d Forshaw (2006). plate 70.
- ^ a b http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Anodorhynchus_hyacinthinus.html
- ^ "Species factsheet: Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus". BirdLife International (2008). http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/species/index.html?action=SpcHTMDetails.asp&sid=1543&m=0. Retrieved 2008-07-24.
- ^ http://news.mongabay.com/2008/0313-hance_macaws.html
- ^ "BioBrasil and the Minnesota Zoo working to save Hyacinth Macaws". Minnesota Zoo. http://www.mnzoo.com/conservation/conservation_world_hyMacaw.asp. Retrieved 2007-08-24.
- ^ Brouwer, Meindert. "The Hyacinth Macaw Makes a Comeback". World Wildlife Fund. http://www.worldwildlife.org/science/projects/item8605.html. Retrieved 2007-08-24.
- Forshaw, Joseph M. (2006). Parrots of the World; an Identification Guide. Illustrated by Frank Knight. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691092516.
- BirdLife International (2004). Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-05-10. Database entry includes a range map, a brief justification of why this species is endangered, and the criteria used.
- del Hoyo et al., 1997. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 4.
- Caldas, Sergio T. and L Candiasani. 2005. Arara-Azul. DBA Dórea Books and Art, São Paulo, São Paulo.