Gilbert and Sousa (2002) studied the host-associations of wood-decaying basidiomycete polypore fungi on three mangrove species (Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans, and Laguncularia racemosa) in a Panamanian mangrove forest. They note that the pattern typically observed for these fungi in diverse tropical forests is that there are a large number of rare species, with the smaller number of common species necessarily being nonspecialists due to the challenge of host rarity. In contrast, the authors found that in the tropical mangrove forest they studied, the polypore assemblage was strongly dominated by a few host-specialized species. Three fungal species, each with a strong preference for a different mangrove host species, comprised 88 percent of all fungi collected (the authors note, however, that these fungi are all reported from other hosts outside of mangrove forests as well). At least for polypore fungi within tropical mangrove forests, where host diversity is low and the abundance of individual host species is high, the restriction against host specialization typically imposed by host rarity in tropical forests may be relaxed, resulting in a polypore community dominated by a few common host-specialist species. (Gilbert and Sousa 2002) One polypore found to be locally specialized on White Mangrove in the study by Gilbert and Sousa (2002), Datronia caperata, was found only on this host in several other Panamanian mangrove forests as well (Parrent et al. 2004).
Smith et al. (2009) studied the effects of fiddler crabs (Uca rapax and Uca pugilator) on the growth of White Mangroves in a restored Florida marsh. They found that the presence of crab burrowing increased final tree height by 27%, final basal trunk diameter by 25%, and final leaf production by 15% over mangroves growing where crabs were removed and excluded. They also observed significant positive associations between mangrove production and crab burrow density. Crab burrows accounted for 24, 29, and 16% of the variation in mangrove height, trunk diameter, and leaf production, respectively.
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