The slightly flesht fruit (a drupe) of White Mangrove floats and is dispersed by water. The fruit contains a single large seed which starts to enlarge (and sometimes to germinate) within the fruit while still on the tree or floating in the water. White Mangrove grows rapidly and may flower and fruit when less than 2 years old. (Little and Wadsworth 1964)
Some White Mangrove populations are androdioecious (i.e., with separate male and hermaphrodite individuals), while others lack male plants. Landry et al. (2009) surveyed 65 populations in Florida and the Bahamas. Because White Mangrove fruits are water-dispersed, the observed distribution of breeding systems was compared to local and regional water currents in order to determine whether dispersal could be important to the maintenance of male plants in androdioecious populations. Twenty-two of the 36 populations surveyed in Florida were androdioecious, with male frequencies that ranged from 1 to 68%. On the east coast of Florida, all populations north of latitude 26 degrees 30' N lacked males, while all populations south of this latitude were androdioecious, suggesting that northern populations may lack males due to dispersal limitation. The pattern of distribution on the west coast of Florida suggests that males may be maintained in some populations via dispersal. Nine islands in the north-central Bahamas were surveyed. and androdioecious populations were found only on San Salvador island, where male frequencies ranged from 5 to 28%. Landry et al. discuss the possible roles of dispersal, fragmentation, and selection in explaining the observed pattern of distribution of androdioecious and pure hermaphrodite populations.
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