Brooding of egg masses in G. onyx (Seibel et al., 2000) [suspected in G. fabricii (Bjorke et al., 1997)] occurs in deep water. Such brooding behavior, rare in oceanic squids, may prove to be characteristic of all members of the genus and perhaps the entire family. The long brooding period demanded by cold temperatures in deep water and its resulting slow population turnover rate, presumably is offset, in evolutionary time, by low egg mortality in the vast, dark, lowly populated bathypelagic environment (see Seibel, et al., 2000). For more information on brooding behavior, go to the G. onyx page.
Figure. Side view of Gonatus onyx brooding an egg mass at 2522 m depth off California in Monterey Canyon. ROV photograph from Seibel et al. (2005). © 2002 MBARI
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