Habitat and biology
A species of subtropical and temperate waters (it avoids temperatures below 8.5°C) occurring over the shelf in the temperate part of its distributional range, but found in deeper waters in subtropical areas; the entire depth range extending from about 100 to 400 m.
The population in the northeastern Atlantic is known to carry out seasonal migrations, spending the summer in the North Sea and the eastern part of the English Channel and overwintering in the western part of the Channel. In daytime squids aggregate near the bottom, dispersing at night throughout the water column.
Spawning occurs almost throughout the year in the English Channel, showing a peak in winter (December and January, at temperature of 9 to 11 °C) and another one in summer. The eggs are attached to hard objects on sandy or muddy bottoms; hatching occurs after 30 to 40 days. Juveniles hatched in January and February attain sizes of approximately 11.5 cm in June; by August, the females measure about 14 cm, the males about 15 cm mantle length, and in November about 25 to 30 cm respectively. Both sexes are then mature (the males beginning in October).
Loligo forbesii feeds on small and juvenile fishes, and to a minor extent on other cephalopods, crustaceans, and polychaetes; cannibalism is common. Off the Azores, the most important fish species in their diet is blue jack mackerel (Trachurus picturatus). (Lepidopus caudatus). Other fishes preyed upon include bogue (Boops boops), and silver scabbardfish
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