Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships
The most recent revision of ithomiine sub-tribal and generic nomenclature is in the Checklist of Neotropical Lepidoptera (Lamas 2004), upon which the names in this tree and its subtrees are based. Lamas (2004), as well as Willmott and Freitas (2006) view Ithomiinae as a subfamily. Here, the clade is treated as a tribe, in order to accommodate the well-supported monophyly of (Danaini , Tellervini , Ithomiini) as a subfamily within Nymphalidae. Thus, Lamas' tribal names are listed here as subtribes.
The topology is derived from several recent works: the DNA sequence-based phylogenetic hypothesis of Brower et al. (2006), and the extensive morphological work of Willmott and Freitas (2006). It is based in part upon an unpublished combination of data from both. Relationships within Oleriina are based on de Silva et al. (2010). The phylogenetic affinities of three taxa (Eutresis, Haenschia and Aremfoxia) whose phylogenetic positions were not well resolved in Willmott and Freitas (2006) and were not sampled by Brower et al. (2006) are indicated as uncertain.
A few genera are likely paraphyletic with respect to others as currently circumscribed: molecular and morphological evidence both suggest that Pagyris is paraphyletic with respect to Placidina, Hypothyris is paraphyletic with respect to Hyalyris, Episcada is paraphyletic with respect to Ceratinia, Greta is paraphyletic with respect to Pseudoscada. The morphological data further suggests paraphyly of Godyris and Hypoleria.
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