This small group of tiny frogs is found in forests of southeastern Brazil. The Gold Frog (Brachycephalus ephippium) is the best known member of this family, and is distinctive because of its color and possession of bony dorsal shields that are fused to the vertebrae. However, other populations of Brachycephalus (currently synonymized) have less ossification. With a snout-vent length of only 9.8 mm, Psyllophryne didactyla is one of the world's smallest amphibians. Both genera exhibit reduction of the number of digits. The two genera are united by the absence of a sternum. There are no fossil brachycephalids.