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Renate Khalaf's Cleaner Shrimp (Urocaridella renatekhalafae Khalaf, 2018)

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Urocaridella renatekhalafae Khalaf, 2018 : A New Cave Clear Cleaner Shrimp Species from the East Coast of the United Arab Emirates, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean. By : Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Mohammad Ahmad Mostafa Khalaf-Prinz Sakerfalke von Jaffa & Ola Mostafa Esmail Mostafa Khalaf (Photography). Reference: Khalaf-Prinz Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Mohammad Ahmad Mostafa & Ola Mostafa Esmail Mostafa Khalaf (2018). Urocaridella renatekhalafae Khalaf, 2018 : A New Cave Clear Cleaner Shrimp Species from the East Coast of the United Arab Emirates, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 157, January 2018, pp. 14-31. Published by Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf Department for Environmental Research and Media, National Research Center, University of Palestine, Gaza, State of Palestine. https://jaffacity.wixsite.com/gazellebulletin/urocaridella-renatekhalafae-khalaf--1 & https://issuu.com/dr-normanalibassamkhalaf/docs/shrimp_urocaridella_renatekhalafae_ . Abstract: A new species of the Cave Clear Cleaner Shrimp genus Urocaridella (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae) from the East Coast of the United Arab Emirates, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean is described. This species is distinguished from the other six Urocaridella species by its very long rostrum and their distinctive transparent body covered by numerous striking small white and red dots and rings. It occurs in shallow sub-tidal waters to a depth of 24 meters. It is morphologically and geographically distinct from the other Clear Cleaner Shrimp species. The new species was named Urocaridella renatekhalafae Khalaf, 2018. Keywords: Arthropoda, Crustacea, Malacostraca, Decapoda, Palaemonidae, Urocaridella renatekhalafae, New Species, Cave Clear Cleaner Shrimp, Renate Khalaf’s Cave Clear Cleaner Shrimp, Renate Khalaf, Khorfakkan, Sea of Khorfakkan, Emirate of Sharjah, Fujairah, Sea of Fujairah, Emirate of Fujairah, United Arab Emirates, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, Near East, Middle East. Introduction: On Friday 05.05.2017 & Saturday 14.10.2017, my wife the PADI Scuba Dive Open Water Instructor and Underwater Photography Instructor Ola Mostafa Khalaf managed to shoot magnificent photos of 3 cm. long undescribed Cave Clear Cleaner Shrimps from the Inchcape 10 ship wreck Sea Ground, 24 meters deep in the Sea of Fujairah, and the Inchcape 2 ship wreck Sea Ground, 22 meters deep in the Sea of Khorfakkan, East Coast of the United Arab Emirates, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean. These photos triggered our search for its identification. We examined zoological reference books and the internet searching for its identity. This new creature was not scientifically described and was not named. The closest genus for our new species was Urocaridella. Six species were studied and compared: Urocaridella antonbruunii Bruce, 1967, Urocaridella cyrtorhyncha Fujino & Miyake, 1969, Urocaridella liui Wang, Chan & Sha, 2015, Urocaridella pulchella Yokes & Galil, 2006, Urocaridella urocaridella Holthuis, 1950 & Urocaridella vestigialis Chace & Bruce, 1993. After studying and comparing it was identified as the undescribed Urocaridella sp. 1. Urocaridella is a small genus of shrimps with currently six species although many researchers claim that there are many more left to be discovered and described. Some of these tiny mosquito-like shrimps clean the mouths and bodies of moray eels and various other cave dwelling fish that share its habitat. Unlike Lysmata and Periclemenes, Urocaridella are capable of prolonged hovering and free swimming, and prefer doing so than perching (Tyk, 2013; Steinke, 2015). One of the neatest things about Urocaridella is their comical way of swimming. When swimming or hovering, they hold their claws downward and buzz around in an almost mosquito-meets-hovercraft fashion (Tyk, 2013; Steinke, 2015). They commonly swim by vigorously beating their pleopods when moving towards their fish clients. This behaviour gives them the strange appearance of hovering in mid-water (Calado, 2008). Sometimes they are called the Helicopter Shrimps. Description and Distinctive Features Urocaridella renatekhalafae Khalaf, 2018 reach a length of 3.00 cm. The large adult female is almost transparent with white and red dots on the cephalothorax and abdomen. The legs have red and white rings and bands. The first and second pair of legs (pereopods) has white and red small claws, the first pair being smaller than the second pair. Small individuals are less pigmented than large ones, and the overall colour is probably less noticeable at night than during the day. The internal organs like the cephalothorax, stomach, digestive gland and ovary are often observed due to transparency; the ovary has an orange or light green color depending on the development of vitellogenesis. The cephalothorax has a very long white coloured rostrum bent upwards and largely exceeds the antennal scales. The eyes are normally stalked. The antennas and antennules are long and red, with some white dots at the base. Pereopods (walking legs) are long and slender. The pleopods (swimming feet under the abdomen) are effective and allow the animal to remain immobile in open water. When swimming, only the pleopods are in action, the pereopods hang under the animal. The abdomen forms a characteristic right angle at the level of which is a red spot preceded by a white spot. The red spot may widen to form a band that runs laterally through the abdomen. At the base of the telson, there is red and white bands; followed by red and white dots and rings on the uropod. Identification Key Transparent body with white and red dots on the cephalothorax and abdomen. Slender, long legs with white and red rings and bands. Long red antennas and antennules. Very long white rostrum. Telson and uropod with white and red dots and rings. Size Urocaridella renatekhalafae grows to about 3.00 cm long. Diet Urocaridella renatekhalafae feeds on parasites that live on fish and moray eels, copepods, food waste and mouth phlegm. It attracts its host by a lateral vibratory movement of its red antennas and antennules. When the fish is set, it lands on the bottom near the shrimp. Then, the shrimp swims towards the fish and begins the cleaning. It sometimes enters the fish’s mouth and gill cavities. Habitat It is mainly observed from the surface up to 25 m depth. Renate Khalaf's shrimp loves rocky environments with holes for hiding. Biology Transparent colouration in Urocaridella renatekhalafae is seen as a first line defence against predation. In its natural environment, the Renate Khalaf’s Cave Clear Cleaner Shrimp lives in groups in small caves and crevices on the reef in locations called "cleaning stations”. It attracts its host by a lateral vibratory movement of its red antennas and antennules. When the fish is set, it lands on the bottom near the shrimp. Then, the shrimp swims towards the fish and begins the cleaning. It sometimes enters the fish’s mouth and gill cavities. These shrimps are regularly observed in the company of the moray eels and fish which they clean. They can change host easily, including a diver, while swimming in open water. The biology of this unusual shrimp does not appear to have been researched by scientists. This shrimp forms groups of a few individuals in small caves or in the immediate vicinity; they have their cleaning station there and constitute a “guild” (solidarity association). Reproduction The eggs are fixed on the pleopods. As this shrimp occurs in warm waters in its distribution range, it is likely to reproduce all year round. Distribution The species Urocaridella renatekhalafae was described and scientifically named from the Fujairah and Khorfakkan Sea, East Coast of the United Arab Emirates, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea. Its distribution extends from the Red Sea, through the Indian Ocean and the Western Pacific Ocean. Classification Kingdom: Animalia Linnaeus, 1758 Phylum: Arthropoda Lankester, 1904 Class: Malacostraca Latreille, 1802 Order: Decapoda Latreille, 1802 Family: Palaemonidae Rafinesque, 1815 Subfamily: Palaemoninae Rafinesque, 1815 Genus: Urocaridella Borradaile, 1915 Species: Urocaridella renatekhalafae Khalaf, 2018 Etymology / Derivation of the Scientific Name The genus name Urocaridella derives from Greek Oura meaning tail, and Latin Carid meaning marine crustacean; and the species name renatekhalafae is Latin for “Renate Khalaf” (Mother of the Taxonomist, born in 1941). This new Cave Clear Cleaner Shrimp species was classified and named by the Palestinian-German Zoologist Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa in January 2018, and the specific name ‘renatekhalafae’ was named in honor of his beloved mother “Renate Margarete Khalaf geb. Weber” (born in Saarbrücken, Germany in 1941). Conclusion: After examining the new Cave Clear Cleaner Shrimp species with white and red dots and rings, living off the East Coast of the United Arab Emirates, and referring to many zoological references, and searching the Internet, I came finally to a conclusion that we are in front of a new Clear Cleaner Shrimp species from the Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean. I gave it the scientific name Urocaridella renatekhalafae, new species. The species name “renatekhalafae” is Latin for my mother “Renate Khalaf” (born in Saarbrücken, Germany in 1941). Urocaridella renatekhalafae, new species: Scientific binomial name: Urocaridella renatekhalafae Khalaf, 2018. Authority: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. Common Names: Renate Khalaf’s Cleaner Shrimp, Renate Khalaf’s Cave Clear Cleaner Shrimp. Holotype: Urk-1, 3.00 cm., Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf-von Jaffa’s Collection. Location: Sea of Fujairah, Emirate of Fujairah, United Arab Emirates. Depth: 24 meters. Date of capture: 05th May, 2017. Reference : Khalaf-Prinz Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Mohammad Ahmad Mostafa & Ola Mostafa Esmail Mostafa Khalaf (2018). Urocaridella renatekhalafae Khalaf, 2018 : A New Cave Clear Cleaner Shrimp Species from the East Coast of the United Arab Emirates, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 157, January 2018, pp. 14-31. Published by Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf Department for Environmental Research and Media, National Research Center, University of Palestine, Gaza, State of Palestine. https://jaffacity.wixsite.com/gazellebulletin/ & https://issuu.com/dr-normanalibassamkhalaf/docs/shrimp_urocaridella_renatekhalafae_