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Habitat Gardening for Houston and Southeast Texas (Plants Native to the Upper Texas Gulf Coast)

Last updated over 2 years ago

This collection contains all plants listed in chapter 5 (entitled "Plants Native to the Upper Texas Gulf Coast) of Mark and Mary Bowen's 1998 book "Habitat Gardening for Houston and Southeast Texas)." These are plants that likely existed in this region when the first European settlers arrived and that are suitable for a habitat garden. A practical goal for a habitat garden, say the Bowens, "is to have at least 50% Upper Texas Gulf Coast native plants and to have the other 50% made up of well adapted plants from other regions." +++++ If you sort the collection by "sort field," the entries will be arranged in the following order: 1) annual, biennual, and reseeding wild flowers; 2) generic native plants; 3) grasses; 4) ground covers; 5) large trees; 6) perennials; 7) shrubs; 8) small trees; 8) vines; 9) wetland plants. +++++ In the annotations I provide information from the book on preferred habitat, foliage/winter appearance, soil conditions, light conditions, plant spacing, and wildlife value. For additional information, simply purchase the book.

  • 19144_88_88

    Symphyotrichum drummondii var. texanum

    Drummond's Aster

    Synonym: Aster Texanus ++++ Preferred habitat: open woods and praires, creek banks ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: annual ++++ Soil conditions: well drained clay ++++ Light conditions: full sun to partial shade ++++ Plant spacing: 1 to 2 feet ++++ Wildlife value: attracts butterflies – adult Monarchs, Pearl Crescent larvae eat foliage; silvery Checkerspot larvae eat foliage; Eufala Skipper adult eats nectar

    Sort value: Annual, Biennual, and Reseeding Wild Flowers

  • 45269_88_88

    Rudbeckia hirta

    Blackeyed Susan

    Preferred habitat: prairies, fields, pastures, open woodlands ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: annual or short-lived perennial ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay, well drained ++++ Light conditions: partial shade to full sun ++++ Plant spacing: 9 to 15” apart or 2 pounds of seed per acre ++++ Wildlife value: a butterfly nectar food source; Silvery Checkerspot eat the foliage

    Sort value: Annual, Biennual, and Reseeding Wild Flowers

  • 72166_88_88

    Solidago

    Goldenrods

    Preferred habitat: prairies ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: winter rosette, leaves up to six inches ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay, poor drainage okay ++++ Light conditions: full sun to partial shade ++++ Plant spacing: use only as accent, aggressive ++++ Wildlife value: flowers are attractive to bees and butterflies, especially Monarchs

    Sort value: Generic Native Plants

  • 67732_88_88

    Ilex decidua

    Meadow Holly

    Preferred habitat: coastal woods, near streams, swamps, or ravines ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: deciduous ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay, tolerates poor drainage ++++ Light conditions: dappled shade to full sun ++++ Plant spacing: 12 to 20 feet apart ++++ Wildlife value: Opossums eat fruit; plant is a butterfly nectar source; attracts birds; Bobwhite Quail, thrushes, Mockingbird, Robin, Catbird, Bluebird, Thrusher, Cedar Waxwing, Rufous-sided Towhee, and Red-bellied Woodpecker eat the fruit;

    Sort value: Generic Native Plants

  • 40792_88_88

    Magnolia virginiana

    Sweetbay Magnolia

    Preferred habitat: Coastal woods, swamps, boggy streams ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: almost evergreen ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay, tolerates poor drainage ++++ Light conditions: dappled shade to full sun ++++ Plant spacing: 20 feet ++++ Wildlife value: leaves favored by deer; berry-like seeds eaten by many bird species and small mammals; leaves are used in bird nest building

    Sort value: Generic Native Plants

  • 14608_88_88

    Prunus caroliniana

    Carolina Laurelcherry

    Preferred habitat: edges of forests, lowland areas, fields, thickets; requires deep, moist, but well-drained bottomlands ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: evergreen ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay loam, well drained ++++ Light conditions: partial shade to full sun ++++ Plant spacing: 8 to 15 feet ++++ Wildlife value: Seeds attract American Robin, Cedar Waxwing, Eastern Bluebird, Mickingbird; it is a butterfly nectar and larval food plant ++++ Note: plant will reseed itself prolifically with the help of robins; do not be surprised if a small number of your cherry laurel population die during changing climatic conditions

    Sort value: Generic Native Plants

  • 32674_88_88

    Prunus mexicana

    Mexican Plum

    Preferred habitat: tallgrass prairies, coastal woods, river bottoms, hardwood slopes, lake shores ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: deciduous, leaves periodically turn yellow in fall ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay loam, clay, well drained ++++ Light conditions: dappled shade to full sun ++++ Plant spacing: 20 to 25 feet ++++ Wildlife value: birds and mammals enjoy the fruit; birds attracted include Eastern Bluebird, Mockingbird, Red-headed Woodpecker; Henry’s Elfin Butterfly larvae eat leaves; Viceroy Butterfly larvae eat plum ++++ Note: this tree is remarkably versatile in terms of handling various light conditions and soil conditions as long as it is not sited in a low-lying area.

    Sort value: Generic Native Plants

  • 89834_88_88

    Rhamnus caroliniana

    Carolina Buckthorn

    Preferred habitat: coastal woods, bottomlands ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: deciduous to almost evergreen, leaves turn yellow in fall ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay, tolerates somewhat poor drainage ++++ Light conditions: dappled shade to full sun ++++ Plant spacing: 15 to 20 feet ++++ Wildlife value: the leaves and bark are browsed by deer; the following birds are attracted to fruit: Gray Catbird, Brown Thrasher, American Robin, Wood and Hermit Thrushes, Cedar Waxwing, Baltimore Oriole ++++ Note: moderate growth rate; this plant can be a little tricky to get established, but it is well worth the effort when possible.

    Sort value: Generic Native Plants

  • 84914_88_88

    Viburnum rufidulum

    Rusty Viburnum

    Preferred habitat: coastal woods, edges of streams, river bottomlands ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: deciduous with red and yellow fall colors ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay, well drained ++++ Light conditions: dappled shade to full sun ++++ Plant spacing: 6 to 10 feet ++++ Wildlife value: flowers attract many pollinators and birds eat the fruit; Henry’s Elfin Butterfly larvae and Spring Azurre Butterfly larvae use leaves as food source

    Sort value: Generic Native Plants

  • 07580_88_88

    Andropogon gerardii

    Big Bluestem

    Preferred habitat: prairies ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: dormant in winter ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay, tolerates poor drainage ++++ Light conditions: partial shade to full sun ++++ Plant spacing: 1/2 to 2 pounds of pure live seed per 1,000 square feet, or 2 feet apart for garden accent ++++ Wildlife value: important forage grass, butterfly larval food plant, wood nymph larvae eat it

    Sort value: Grasses

  • 58683_88_88

    Schizachyrium scoparium

    Little Bluestem

    Preferred habitat: prairies ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: dormant in winter ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay, well drained ++++ Light conditions: partial shade to full sun ++++ Plant spacing: 1/2to 2 pounds of pure live seed per 1,000 square feet, or 1 1/2 feet apart for garden accent ++++ Wildlife value: butterfly larval feed plant, wood nymphs and swarthy skippers eat it.

    Sort value: Grasses

  • 71414_88_88

    Panicum virgatum

    Old Switch Panic Grass

    Preferred habitat: moist or seasonally moist open places ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: dormant in winter ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay, tolerates poor drainage ++++ Light conditions: partial shade to full sun ++++ Plant spacing: 1/2 to 2 pounds of pure live seed per 1,000 square feet, or 3 feet apart for garden accents ++++ Wildlife value: dense growth makes it good wildlife habitat, and large seeds attract various birds; important source of food for ground feeding songbirds and game, also a butterfly larval food plant.

    Sort value: Grasses

  • 27475_88_88

    Sorghastrum nutans

    Yellow Indian-grass

    Preferred habitat: prairies ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: dormant in winter ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay, tolerates poor drainage ++++ Light conditions: full sun to partial shade ++++ Plant spacing: 1/2 to 2 pounds of pure live seed per 1,000 square feet, or 3 to 5 feet apart for garden accent ++++ Wildlife value: valuable forage grass

    Sort value: Grasses

  • 23909_88_88

    Tripsacum dactyloides

    Eastern Gamagrass

    Preferred habitat: prairies ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: dormant in winter ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay, tolerates poor drainage ++++ Light conditions: partial shade to full sun ++++ Plant spacing: 1/2 to 2 pounds of pure live seed per 1,000 square feet, or 3 to 4 feet apart for accents. ++++ Wildlife value: Butterfly larval food plant

    Sort value: Grasses

  • 43017_88_88

    Thelypteris kunthii (Desv.) C.V. Morton

    Kunth's Maiden Fern

    Preferred habitat: wetlands, low woods ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: dormant in winter ++++ Soil conditions: sandy loam, clay, tolerates moist poorly draining area ++++ Light conditions: shade to partial shade ++++ Plant spacing: 2-3 feet apart ++++ Wildlife value: cover for ground feeders and dwellers

    Sort value: Ground Covers

  • 55515_88_88

    Verbena canadensis

    Rose Verbena

    Preferred habitat: fields, woods ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: Mostly evergreen, thin in summer ++++ Soil conditions: loam, moist but well drained ++++ Light conditions: full sun to partial shade ++++ Plant spacing: 12-18” apart ++++ Wildlife value: rich in nectar, loved by butterflies and moths; their oblong seeds are eaten by several kinds of birds in small amounts

    Sort value: Ground Covers

  • 64070_88_88

    Betula nigra

    River Birch

    Preferred habitat: near creeks, near wetlands, bottomlands, near swamps ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: deciduous, yellow leaves in fall ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay, tolerates poor drainage ++++ Light conditions: partial shade to full sun ++++ Plant spacing: 25 to 30 feet ++++ Wildlife value: Seeds eaten by birds, foliage is browsed by White Tailed Deer.

    Sort value: Large Trees

  • 88632_88_88

    Carya illinoinensis

    Pecan

    Preferred habitat: low wet woods, river bottoms, along streams, bottomland ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: deciduous ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay, well drained ++++ Light conditions: full sun ++++ Plant spacing: 50 to 75 feet ++++ Wildlife value: Nut is eaten by birds, Fox Squirrel, Gray Squirrel, opossum, raccoon, and Peccary ++++ Note: this tree needs quite a bit of room to grow and is a very messy tree so many prefer to use it on more distant region of properties

    Sort value: Large Trees

  • 16408_88_88

    Magnolia grandiflora

    Southern Magnolia

    Preferred habitat: low, moist woods, along streams ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: evergreen ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay, well drained ++++ Light conditions: partial shade to full sun ++++ Plant spacing: 50 to 75 feet ++++ Wildlife value: Fruit is eaten by these birds: Red and White-eyed Vireos, Red-headed Woodpecker, Gray Catbird, Eastern Kingbird, Mockingbird, American Robin, Brown Thrasher, Wood Thrush, Red-bellied Woodpecker, Pileated Woodpecker, Cardinal; seeds are eaten by squirrels ++++ Note: it is best used toads the back of a property so its branches can be allowed to extend down near the ground, which will ensure a majestic appearance; it is very difficult to grow plants under magnolias due to their dense root systems

    Sort value: Large Trees

  • 84673_88_88

    Nyssa sylvatica

    Black Tupelo

    Preferred habitat: wetlands, low woods ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: deciduous, red leaves in fall ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay, tolerates poor drainage ++++ Light conditions: partial shade to full sun ++++ Plant spacing: 30 feet ++++ Wildlife value: Flowers are a source of bee food; foliage browsed by White-Tailed Deer; fruit attracts the following birds: Eastern Bluebird, Gray Catbird, Eastern Kingbird, Mockingbird, American Robin, Brown Thrasher, Summer Tanager, Cedar Waxwing, Red-bellied and Red-headed Woodpecker, Gray Cheeked Thrush, Blue Jay, Tufted Titmouse, Rose-breasted Grosbeak, Purple Finch, Wood Duck, wild turkey, flicker

    Sort value: Large Trees

  • 11355_88_88

    Quercus lyrata

    Overcup Oak

    Preferred habitat: swamps, wetlands, banks of streams, bottomlands ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: deciduous ++++ Soil conditions: poorly drained clay soils

    Sort value: Large Trees

  • 83564_88_88

    Quercus michauxii

    Swamp Chestnut Oak

    Preferred habitat: coastal plain ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: deciduous, leaves turn red in fall ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay, tolerates poor drainage ++++ Light conditions: partial shade to full sun ++++ Plant spacing: 50 feet ++++ Wildlife value: acorns are eaten by Mourning Dove, wild turkey, and White-tailed Deer; acorns are a very important wildlife food due to abundance; oaks provide good cover as well; leaves and twigs are a favorite for bird nests; birds feeding on acorns: Evening Grosbeaks, Brown Thrasher, Mourning Dove, Red-bellied and Red-headed Woodpeckers, Blue Jay, Tufted Titmouse, White-breasted Nuthatch, Rose-breasted Grosbeak, and Rufous-sided Towhee; several butterfly larvae eat leaves including: Northern Hairstreaks, Red Banded Hairstreaks, Juvenal’s Duskywing, and Horace’s Duskywing

    Sort value: Large Trees

  • 32848_88_88

    Quercus phellos

    Willow Oak

    Preferred habitat: moist forests ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: deciduous ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay, tolerates poor drainage ++++ Light conditions: partial shade to full sun ++++ Plant spacing: 50 to 60 feet ++++ Wildlife value: Acorns are eaten by wild turkey, Bobwhite, quail, dove jay, Gray and Fox Squirrels; they are also eaten by the following birds: Evening Grosbeaks, Brown Thrasher, Mourning Dove, Red-bellied and Red-headed Woodpeckers, Blue Jay, Tufted Titmouse, White-breasted Nuthatch, Rose-breasted Grosbeak, and Rufous-sided Towhee

    Sort value: Large Trees

  • 68935_88_88

    Salix ambigua

    Black Willow

    Synonym: Salix nigra ++++ Preferred habitat: wet soils, bank of rivers and streams, marshes ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: deciduous ++++ Soil conditions: clay, tolerates poor drainage ++++ Light conditions: sun ++++ Plant spacing: 25 to 30 feet ++++ Wildlife value: provides nesting habitat and cover; willows supply browsing food for deer and rabbits; several species of birds use tender willow buds and twigs for food; honeybees are attracted to willows in the spring for their nectar ++++ Note: this tree can be aggressive and can cause problems if it is used inappropriately. This tree can be useful for erosion control in severe situations

    Sort value: Large Trees

  • 92743_88_88

    Sapindus saponaria var. drummondii (Hook. & Arn.) L. D. Benson

    Western Soapberry

    Preferred habitat: fields, edges of woods, along streams ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: deciduous, bright yellow leaves in fall ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay, well drained ++++ Light conditions: partial to full sun ++++ Plant spacing: 25 to 30 feet ++++ Wildlife value: Hairstreak Butterfly larvae eat foliage ++++ Note: all parts of plant are toxic

    Sort value: Large Trees

  • 05899_88_88

    Zephyranthes drummondii D. Don

    Prairie Lily

    Synonym: Cooperia pedunculata ++++ Preferred habitat: pastures, prairies, woodlands ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: sometimes evergreen ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay ++++ Light conditions: partial shade to full sun ++++ Plant spacing: 6 to 12 inches ++++ Wildlife value: nectar source ++++ Note: do not be disappointed if they bloom sporadically after rains - that is their nature

    Sort value: Perennials

  • 60529_88_88

    Echinacea sanguinea

    Sanguin Purple Coneflower

    Preferred habitat: prairies, hillsides, pine-hardwood forests ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: mostly dormant in winter ++++ Soil conditions: loam, well drained ++++ Light conditions: partial shade to full sun ++++ Plant spacing: 1 to 2 feet ++++ Wildlife value: a nectar food plant

    Sort value: Perennials

  • 22284_88_88

    Helianthus maximiliani

    Maximilian Sunflower

    Preferred habitat: ditches, prairies, swales, depressions ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: dormant in winter ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay, well drained ++++ Light conditions: partial shade to full sun ++++ Plant spacing: 3 to 4 feet apart ++++ Wildlife value: Seed enjoyed by deer and many species of birds; a nectar and larval food plant for butterflies; attracts these birds: Cardinal, Carolina Chickadee, American Goldfinch, House Finch, Purple Finch, Evening Grosbeak, Blue Jay, Nut Hatches, White-Throated Sparrow, Tufted Titmouse, Rufous-sided Towhee, House Sparrow, Dark-eyed Junco, Mourning Dove, Pine Siskin, Red-winged Black Bird, Scrub Jay, and Red-Bellied and Red-headed Woodpeckers; Silvery Checkerspots and Bordered Patch Butterfly larvae eat leaves.

    Sort value: Perennials

  • 52097_88_88

    Hibiscus laevis

    Halberdleaf Rosemallow

    Synonym: Hibiscus militaris ++++ Preferred habitat: marshes, swamps, wetlands ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: dormant in winter ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay, tolerates poor drainage ++++ Light conditions: partial shade to full sun ++++ Plant spacing: 3 to 4 feet apart ++++ Wildlife value: Attracts Cloudless Sulphurs; Common Checkered Skipper larvae eat it; hummingbirds also enjoy nectar.

    Sort value: Perennials

  • 80619_88_88

    Iris brevicaulis

    Zigzag Iris

    Preferred habitat: swamps, wet meadows, damp woods, marshes, bottomlands ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: dormant in summer if too dry ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay, tolerates poor drainage ++++ Light conditions: dappled shade to full sun ++++ Plant spacing: 12 to 18” ++++ Wildlife value: Butterfly larvae like to pupate on irises ++++ Note: plant can be difficult to find; its iris cousins the Louisiana irises will achieve similar results

    Sort value: Perennials

  • 05160_88_88

    Penstemon tenuis

    Sharpsepal Beardtongue

    Preferred habitat: Gulf prairies and marshes ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: evergreen to dormant in winter ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay, tolerates poor drainage ++++ Light conditions: dappled shade to full sun ++++ Plant spacing: 12 to 15” ++++ Wildlife value: attracts bees ++++ Note: foliage is average looking, but flowers are exquisite. Commonly known as Gulf Coast Penstemon

    Sort value: Perennials

  • 18833_88_88

    Phlox pilosa

    Prairie Phlox

    Preferred habitat: open grassland ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: dormant in summer and winter ++++ Soil conditions: loam, well drained ++++ Light conditions: dappled shade to partial shade ++++ Plant spacing: 12 to 15” ++++ Wildlife value: butterfly nectar plant; hummingbirds like flowers ++++ Note: plant other plants as companions in the same area so in the summer when it does not look as good, there will be other plants to draw attention away from the phlox

    Sort value: Perennials

  • 68055_88_88

    Physostegia angustifolia

    Narrowleaf False Dragonhead

    Preferred habitat: marshy areas, along streams, fields, meadows ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: semievergreen to dormant ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay, tolerates poor drainage ++++ Light conditions: dappled shade to full sun ++++ Plant spacing: 2 feet ++++ Wildlife value: attracts bees

    Sort value: Perennials

  • 24775_88_88

    Salvia coccinea Buc'hoz ex Etl.

    Red Sage

    Preferred habitat: thickets, open woods, near streams ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: dormant to semievergreen ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay ++++ Light conditions: dappled shade to full sun ++++ Plant spacing: 1 to 2 feet ++++ Wildlife value: hummingbirds love nectar as well as many different butterflies; attracts Cloudless Sulphurs

    Sort value: Perennials

  • 90355_88_88

    Callicarpa americana

    American Beautyberry

    Preferred habitat: coastal woods, moist thickets, rich bottomlands, edges of swamps ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: deciduous ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay, well drained ++++ Light conditions: dappled shade to partial shade ++++ Plant spacing: 5 to 7 feet ++++ Wildlife value: fruit sought by some of our most known birds including the Robin, Mockingbird, Catbird, and Brown Thrasher ++++ Note: since this plant is deciduous it often looks best in the garden mixed with other more evergreen plants in small groupings rather than large mass plantings; light periodic pruning will help it stay fuller

    Sort value: Shrubs

  • 37455_88_88

    Erythrina herbacea

    Redcardinal

    Preferred habitat: coastal plains ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: deciduous ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay, well drained ++++ Light conditions: partial shade to full sun ++++ Plant spacing: 5 to 7 feet ++++ Wildlife value: attracts hummingbirds

    Sort value: Shrubs

  • 58398_88_88

    Euonymus americanus

    American Strawberry-bush

    Preferred habitat: coastal woods, along forested streams, river bottomlands ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: deciduous, leaves turn red in fall ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay, tolerates poor drainage ++++ Light conditions: shade to partial shade ++++ Plant spacing: 3 to 5 feet ++++ Wildlife value: fruit attracts these birds; Eastern Bluebird, Mockingbird, Wood Thrush, Fox Sparrow, and Yellow-rumped Warbler

    Sort value: Shrubs

  • 56352_88_88

    Itea virginica

    Virginia Willow

    Preferred habitat: coastal woods, swamp, about lakes, along woodland streams ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: deciduous to almost evergreen, leaves turn purple in fall ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay, tolerates poor drainage ++++ Light conditions: dappled shade to partial shade ++++ Plant spacing: 3 to 4 feet ++++ Wildlife value: good cover for wildlife and seed source

    Sort value: Shrubs

  • 86398_88_88

    Malvaviscus arboreus

    Turkscap

    Preferred habitat: coastal woods, along streams, open woodlands, thickets ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: semi-evergreen to dormant in winter ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay, well drained ++++ Light conditions: shade to full sun ++++ Plant spacing: 3 to 4 feet apart ++++ Wildlife value: hummingbirds, butterflies, and other wildlife are attracted to this plant; hummingbirds like the flowers while birds and mammals enjoy the fruit; attracts Cloudless Sulphur; Gray Hairstreak larvae eat the leaves; also a good butterfly nectar source

    Sort value: Shrubs

  • 44479_88_88

    Morella cerifera

    Wax Myrtle

    Synonyms: Myrica pusilla, Myrica cerifera ++++ Preferred habitat: well drained soils in moist woods ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: evergreen ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay loam ++++ Light conditions: dappled shade to full sun ++++ Plant spacing: 3 to 4 feet ++++ Wildlife value: berries attract 37 different species of birds; provides excellent year-round cover ++++ Note: plant is important for reforestation due to its nitrogen fixing root nodules, which harbor actinomycetes that help improve soil.

    Sort value: Shrubs

  • 97871_88_88

    Sabal minor

    Blue-stem Palmetto

    Preferred habitat: wetlands, coastal woods, lowlands, swamp, river terrace, and flood plains ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: evergreen ++++ Soil coloam, clay, tolerates poor drainage nditions: ++++ Light conditions: shade to partial shade ++++ Plant spacing: 4 to 6 feet ++++ Wildlife value: provides cover ++++ Note: slow growing

    Sort value: Shrubs

  • 66029_88_88

    Aesculus pavia var. pavia

    Red Buckeye

    Preferred habitat: woods, along streams in thickets ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: deciduous ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay, well drained ++++ Light conditions: shade to partial shade ++++ Plant spacing: 6 to 12 feet ++++ Wildlife value: hummingbirds and butterflies like flowers ++++ Note: all parts of this plant are deadly poisonous

    Sort value: Small Trees

  • 11432_88_88

    Carpinus caroliniana

    Musclewood

    Preferred habitat: rich woods, bottomlands ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: deciduous, leaves ten yellow, orange, or red in fall ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay, well drained ++++ Light conditions: shade to partial shade ++++ Plant spacing: 12 to 15 feet ++++ Wildlife value: seeds eaten by many kinds of birds (at least 9 species) and squirrels; good cover; attracts Cardinal, American Goldfinch, Evening Grosbeak

    Sort value: Small Trees

  • 45855_88_88

    Crataegus marshallii

    Parsley Hawthorn

    Preferred habitat: coastal woods ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: deciduous, leaves turn red in fall ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay, tolerates poor drainage ++++ Light conditions: dappled shade to full sun ++++ Plant spacing: 15 to 20 feet ++++ Wildlife value: a favorite nesting site for many birds; Fox Sparrows and Cedar Waxwings like the apple-like fruits; butterfly larvae eat foliage; Harvest Butterfly, Northern Hairstreak, and Red Spotted Purple larvae eat the foliage ++++ Note: an excellent accent plant that has several striking features

    Sort value: Small Trees

  • 69073_88_88

    Bignonia capreolata

    Crossvine

    Preferred habitat: moist woods, wetlands ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: evergreen ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay, tolerates poor drainage ++++ Light conditions: shade to full sun ++++ Plant spacing: 3 feet ++++ Wildlife value: hummingbirds like the flowers ++++ Note: a reliable shade-loving vine

    Sort value: Vines

  • 82598_88_88

    Gelsemium sempervirens

    Yellow Jessamine

    Preferred habitat: on edge or in open woodlands ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: evergreen ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay, tolerates poor drainage ++++ Light conditions: partial shade to full sun ++++ Plant spacing: 6 to 8 feet ++++ Wildlife value: attracts bees, good nectar source, good evergreen cover ++++ Note: flowers and foliage are deadly poisonous, leaves can cause contact dermatitis

    Sort value: Vines

  • 83340_88_88

    Lonicera sempervirens

    Coral Honeysuckle

    Preferred habitat: woods ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: almost evergreen ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay ++++ Light conditions: partial shade to full sun ++++ Plant spacing: 6 to 8 feet ++++ Wildlife value: attracts ruby-throated hummingbirds; bloom corresponds with their migration; red berries eaten by Cardinals and other birds; flowers attract butterflies

    Sort value: Vines

  • 50958_88_88

    Passiflora incarnata

    Purple Passionflower

    Preferred habitat: fields, along streams, in and on edge of open woods ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: dormant in winter ++++ Soil conditions: loam, well drained ++++ Light conditions: dappled shade to full sun ++++ Plant spacing: 2 to 3 feet ++++ Wildlife value: larval food plant for family of butterflies called heliconians, and toxic properties of plant tissue serve to protect the butterflies from predators; feeds the spring caterpillars of the pretty Gulf Fritillary Butterfly

    Sort value: Vines

  • 11151_88_88

    Vitis mustangensis

    Mustang Grape

    Preferred habitat: along streams, edges of woods ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: deciduous ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay ++++ Light conditions: dappled shade to partial sun ++++ Plant spacing: 5 to 6 feet ++++ Wildlife value: the fruit is a favorite of many birds; in summer its thick foliage provides good escape and shelter cover, as well as nesting sites, hark often used in nest building; fruit attracts the following birds: Mourning Dove; Red-bellied and Red-headed Woodpeckers, Eastern Kingbird; Blue Jay, Great Crested Flycatcher, Tufted Titmouse, Mockingbird, Gray Catbird, Brown Thrasher, American Robin, Wood, Hermit, Gray-cheeked, and Swanson’s Thrushes, Eastern Bluebird, Red-eyed Virea, Yellow-breasted Chat, House and Fox Sparrows, Orchard and Northern Orioles, Scarlet and Summer Tanagers, Cardinal, Purple Finch, American Goldfinch, Rufous-sided Towhee

    Sort value: Vines

  • 59635_88_88

    Wisteria frutescens

    American Wisteria

    Synonym: Wisteria macrostachya ++++ Preferred habitat: moist woods, along river banks, thicks ++++ Foliage/winter appearance: deciduous ++++ Soil conditions: loam, clay, well drained ++++ Light conditions: dappled shade to full sun ++++ Plant spacing: 4 to 6 feet ++++ Wildlife value: nectar source; Silver-spotted Skippers eat foliage

    Sort value: Vines